2017, Issue 3
One new and one updated review are available in Issue 3 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Psychosocial group interventions to improve psychological well-being in adults living with HIV (van der Heijden I, Abrahams N, Sinclair D)
In this new review, Ingrid van der Heijden and colleagues examine whether group therapy can improve the well-being of adults living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV causes a chronic, life threatening, and often stigmatising disease, which can impact on a person's psychological well-being, and group therapy could help people living with HIV to cope wit the condition, or recover from depression, anxiety, and stress. Group interventions include cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), and others such as relaxation techniques and stress management, problem solving and coping skills, social or peer support, education and empowerment. The review includes 16 trials conducted in the USA (12 trials), Canada (one trial), Switzerland (one trial), Uganda (one trial), and South Africa (one trial), with a total of 2520 adults living with HIV. Group-based therapy based on CBT showed a small effect on measures of depression, lasting for up to 15 months and little or no effect on measures of anxiety, stress, and coping. Group interventions based on mindfulness were studied in two small trials, and had not demonstrated effects on measures of depression, anxiety or stress. The quality of evidence was overall low, and the authors conclude that existing group interventions have little to no effect in increasing psychological adjustment to living with HIV, and more good quality studies are required.
- Corticosteriods for tuberculous pleurisy (Ryan H, Yoo J, Darsini P)
A new team led by Hannah Ryan has just completed an update of this review, which was first published in 1998, after revising the protocol and altering the outcomes of interest. Some clinicians believe that corticosteroids used in combination with antituberculous drugs can speed up the recovery from TB pleurisy and help to prevent long-term complications, but research findings have been inconsistent and there is some concern regarding the potential adverse effects of corticosteroids, especially in HIV-positive people. The updated review includes 6 trials with 590 participants, conducted in Asia (3 trials), Africa (2 trials), and Europe (1 trial). Two trials were in HIV-negative people, one trial was in HIV-positive people, and three trials did not report HIV status. Corticosteroids may reduce the time to resolution of the symptoms of TB pleurisy and the time to resolution of the pleural effusion on chest X-ray, as well as reduce the risk of having signs of pleural scarring. However, they may increase the risk of adverse events leading to discontinuation of the trial drug. As the risk of disability and long-term illness after TB pleurisy is unclear, research looking at the association between TB pleurisy and lung function impairment would be useful to inform future research into corticosteroids for TB pleurisy.
2016, Issue 12
Three updated reviews are available in Issue 12 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children (Lazzerini M, Wanzira H)
Marzia Lazzerini and her co-authors have updated this review, from January 2013. The author team has been amended, the 'Summary of findings' tables have been updated according to the GRADE approach, and a PRISMA study flow diagram has been added. The review now includes 33 trials with 10,841 children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery, who received oral zinc supplements or placebo. The majority of the data is from Asia, from countries at high risk of zinc deficiency. In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around ½ day, and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven. These effects are not present in children aged less than six months, but they are greater in children with malnutrition. In children with persistent diarrhoea, zinc supplementation probably shortens the average duration of diarrhoea by around 16 hours. Zinc administration can induce vomit (because of a metallic aftertaste), but development of a more palatable formulation may minimize this problem. The author conclude that In areas where diarrhoea is an important cause of child mortality, and the prevalence of zinc deficiency or mild/moderate malnutrition is high, zinc may be of benefit in children with diarrhoea aged six months or more. Further research is necessary to justify continued supplementation in children less than six months of age and in children with low risk of zinc deficiency.
- Polymer-based oral rehydration soloution for treating acute watery diarrhoea (Gregorio GV, Gonzales MLM, Dans LF, Martinez EG)
This review was last published in 2009, and this update includes 'Summary of findings' tables prepared according to the GRADE approach. Germana Gregorio and her team have identified one new trial and the review now includes 35 trials with 4284 participants (2304 using polymer-based ORS and 1980 using glucose-based ORS). Polymer-based ORS are in fact “food-based” rehydration solutions made of water mixed with cooked rice, wheat, or maize, and children may like them more than salt and sugar solution, which is the standard medical treatment. Most trials compared polymer-based ORS with a sugar–salt ORS with a particular strength (ORS ≥ 310), which is slightly more salty than the currently agreed best formula (≤ 270 mOsm/L). Results showed that polymer-based ORS has advantages compared to glucose-based ORS (at ≥ 310 mOsm/L); comparisons also favoured polymer -based ORS over ORS ≤ 270, but the quality of evidence was poor. No difference was observed between the groups regarding the number of people who needed a drip to be rehydrated, and adverse events were similar. More trials are needed comparing polymer-based ORS versus sugar-salt ORS ≤ 270 mOsm/L.
- Efavirenz or nevirapine in three-drug combination therapy with two nucleoside or nucleotide-reverse transcriptase inhibitors for initial treatment of HIV infection in antiretroviral-naïve individuals (Mbuagbaw L, Mursleen S, Irlam JH, Spaulding AB, Rutherford GW, Siegfried N)
This review by Lawrence Mbuagbaw and colleagues updates the original, first published in 2010, with the aim to determine which non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NNRTI) , either efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP), is more effective in suppressing viral load when given in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) as part of initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection. Five new studies have been added and the review now includes 12 RCTs with 3278 participants, all adults – no trials in children were identified. Four trials included people who were also receiving treatment for tuberculosis. There was little or no difference in suppression of HIV infection, probably little or no difference in mortality, progression to AIDS, stopping treatment early and changes in blood cells affected by HIV, and there may be little or no difference in treatment failure. NVP given at the once daily dose of 400 mg led to higher mortality rates than EFV. Both drugs can cause severe adverse effects, affecting different systems: EFV is more likely to affect mental function, while NVP is more likely to cause signs of liver damage, reduced white blood cells and rash. The authors conclude that EFV and NVP have similar clinical efficacies, and clinicians need to determine which is the more appropriate for their patients by weighing other factors like availability, cost, and concomitant medication. They must also consider individual tolerability and watch carefully for side-effects.
2016, Issue 11
Three new reviews are available in Issue 11 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age (Yakoob MY, Salam RA, Khan FR, Bhutta ZA)
Vitamin D in its two forms (D2 and D3), is essential for bone growth and is therefore especially important in children.
Both vitamin D2 and D3 are obtained from food such as fish liver oils, eggs, and milk; however, we obtain most of our vitamin D (as vitamin D3) by synthesizing it directly when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Childhood vitamin D deficiency is common both in LMIC and high income countries, for several reasons such as lack of sunlight in the winter months, vegetarian diets, a dark pigmented skin (as melanin acts as a natural sunscreen), increased pollution, and wearing clothes covering most of the body. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to rickets, characterized by weak and deformed bones, and it has also been associated with other infections such as tuberculosis, gastroenteritis and malaria. This review, by Mohammad Yakoob and colleagues, analyses vitamin D supplementation to prevent infections, in 4 trials with a total of 3198 children under five years of age, conducted in Afghanistan, Spain, and the USA, countries with wide differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. Evidence from the largest trial (in Afghanistan) did not demonstrate any benefit of vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of pneumonia or diarrhoea, and the authors did not find any trial that reported on the incidence of TB, malaria or febrile illness, duration of pneumonia, duration of diarrhoea, severity of infection, and cause-specific mortality. The authors conclude that whether further trials are worthwhile in areas with low baseline vitamin D deficiency is a judgement that needs to be made carefully against other competing resources for research.
- School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents (Mason-Jones AJ, Sinclair D, Mathews C, Kagee A, Hillman A, Lombard C)
The school environment plays an important role in the development of children and young people, and school-based sexuality education programmes have become popular in many regions of the world. Most of these programs are based on behavioural science theories, and aim to improve knowledge, change attitudes, intentions, behaviours, and social norms around sexual and reproductive health. There have been a large number of systematic reviews that evaluated the effectiveness of these programmes, but most of them have used self-reported sexual behaviours as their main outcomes, which have been found to be prone to bias and unreliable. In this new review, Amanda Mason-Jones and her colleagues have used biological outcome measures i.e. incidence of HIV or other STIs, or pregnancy. The review includes 8 cluster-RCTs with 55,157 participants: 5 trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, one in Latin America and two in Europe. Sexual and reproductive health education programmes alone showed no effect on the number of young people infected with HIV or other STIs during adolescence, or the number of adolescent pregnancies. Giving monthly cash, or free school uniforms, to encourage students to stay in school probably has no effect on the number of young people infected with HIV during adolescence, and may reduce the number of adolescent pregnancies (low certainty evidence). One trial assessed combined educational and incentive-based programmes showing that they may reduce STIs (low certainty evidence) in young women, but no effect was detected for HIV or pregnancy.
- Six-month therapy for abdominal tuberculosis (Jullien S, Jain S, Ryan H, Ahuja V)
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) affects the gut, the peritoneum, abdominal lymph nodes, and, more rarely, the solid organs in the abdomen (liver, pancreas, and spleen), and leads to severe illness in adults and children, with possible complications, such as bowel rupture, which can cause death. Most current guidelines recommend treating people that have abdominal TB with antituberculous treatment (ATT) for six months, but some clinicians treat for longer periods due to concerns that six months is not adequate to achieve cure and prevent relapses. Longer ATT, however, is associated with poor adherence, higher risk of side effects, and higher cost to health systems and to patients. In this new review, Sophie Jullien and colleagues analyse data from three RCTs, with 328 participants, comparing six-month regimens with nine-month regimens to treat adults with intestinal and peritoneal TB. All trials were conducted in Asia, and excluded people with HIV, those with co-morbidities and those who had received ATT in the previous five years. Antituberculous regimens were based on isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol. Relapse was uncommon in both shorter and longer treatment groups, and the proportion of participants who achieved clinical cure or defaulted from treatment was small in both groups. There were 2/150 deaths (1.3%) in the six-month group and 4/144 (2.8%) in the nine-month group, but they all occurred in the first four months of treatment, so were not linked to the duration of treatment. Six-month regimens are probably as good as nine-month regimens in terms of numbers of people cured, but more trials may be needed about treating abdominal TB in children and in people with HIV.
2016, Issue 9
One new review ,one updated review and one new protocol are available in Issue 9 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the main form of tuberculosis that affects the central nervous system and is associated with high rates of death and disability. Longer antituberculous treatment (ATT) regimens for TBM than for pulmonary tuberculosis are recommended to prevent relapse, but the longer regimens are associated with poor adherence. In this new review, Sophie Jullien and colleagues analyse data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies of adults and children with TBM, treated with ATT regimens that included rifampicin for six months or longer than six months. Four RCTs and 12 prospective cohort studies with a total of 1881 participants are included in the review: 7 studies with 458 participants that evaluated six months of treatment, and 12 studies with 1423 participants that evaluated longer treatment. TB relapse was an uncommon event across all studies; few participants defaulted from treatment, but adherence was not clearly documented. There was a higher death rate in participants treated for longer than six months, probably reflecting differences between the participants in the two groups of studies. The authors conclude that, as this was observational data, and most participants were HIV negative, there is the need for well-designed RCTs, or large prospective cohort studies, to resolve the uncertainty regarding the safety and efficacy of six months regimens for TBM.
- GenoType® MTBDRsl assay for resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (Theron G, Peter J, Richardson M, Warren R, Dheda K, Steingart KR)
Genotype® MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) is a rapid DNA-based test for detecting specific mutations associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. This is an update from the 2014 review, performed as part of a World Health Organization process to develop updated guidelines for using MTBDRsl. Grant Theron and colleagues have summarized evidence from 27 studies – 16 of them evaluated version 1.0 of the test, and one study version 2.0, released in 2015. The analysis shows that in people with rifampicin-resistant or MDR-TB, MTBDRsl performed on a culture isolate or smear-positive specimen may be useful in detecting second-line drug resistance. MTBDRsl (smear-positive specimen) correctly classified around six in seven people as having fluoroquinolone or SLID resistance, although the sensitivity estimates for SLID resistance varied. The test rarely gave a positive result for people without drug resistance. However, when second-line drug resistance is not detected (MTBDRsl result is negative), conventional DST can still be used to evaluate patients for resistance to the fluoroquinolones or SLIDs. The authors recommend that future work evaluate MTBDRsl version 2.0, in particular on smear-negative specimens and in different settings to account for different resistance-causing mutations that may vary by strain.
- Interventions using mobile devices (phones, smart phones, or tablets) to improve adherence to treatment for HIV or tuberculosis (Roberts DJ, Rylands J, Sinclair D)
2016, Issue 6
One review update and two new protocols are available in Issue 6 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Nutritional supplements for people being treated for active tuberculosis (Grobler L, Nagpal S, Sudarsanam TD, Sinclair D)
Liesl Grobler and colleagues completed this Cochrane review update on the effects of nutritional supplements for people being treated for tuberculosis. Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection which most commonly affects the lungs. People with tuberculosis are often malnourished, and malnourished people are at higher risk of developing tuberculosis as their immune system is weakened. Nutritional supplements could help people recover from the illness by strengthening their immune system, and by improving weight gain and muscle strength, allowing them to return to an active life. The review authors searched for relevant studies up to 4 February 2016, and included 35 studies with 8283 participants. Food or energy supplements may improve weight gain during recovery from tuberculosis in some settings, but there is currently no evidence that they improve tuberculosis treatment outcomes. There is also currently no reliable evidence that routinely supplementing above the recommmended daily amounts has clinical benefits.
- Primaquine or tafenoquine for preventing malaria in people travelling to or living in endemic areas (Rodrigo C, Rajapakse S, Fernando SD)
- Nutritional supplements for patients being treated for active visceral leishmaniasis (Custodio E, Herrero M, López-Alcalde J, Benito A, Alvar J)
2016, Issue 5
Two new reviews and one new protocol are available in Issue 5, 2016 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay for detecting active tuberculosis in HIV-positive adults (Shah M, Hanrahan C, Wang ZY, Dendukuri N, Lawn SD, Denkinger CM, Steingart KR)
Maunank Shah, Karen Steingart and their team have completed this new review, which assesses the accuracy of the lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan assay (LF-LAM) for active TB diagnosis or screening in HIV+ adults. LF-LAM is a commercially available point-of-care test, which is performed by placing urine on one end of a test strip, with positive results appearing as a coloured line. The test is simple, requires no special equipment, and shows results in 25 minutes. The review includes 12 studies: 6 evaluated LF-LAM for TB diagnosis and 6 for TB screening; all studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries. LF-LAM was found to have low sensitivity to detect TB in adults living with HIV, whether it was used for diagnosis or screening. For TB diagnosis, the combination of LF-LAM with sputum microscopy suggests an increase in sensitivity for TB compared to either test alone, but with a decrease in specificity. However, in HIV-positive people with low CD4 counts who are seriously ill, LF-LAM may help with the diagnosis of TB. The results of the review should be interpreted with caution as there are small number of studies and participants included in the analyses.
- Fixed-dose combinations of drugs versus single-drug formulations for treating pulmonary tuberculosis (Gallardo CR, Rigau Comas D, Valderrama Rodríguez A, Roqué i Figuls M, Parker LA, Caylà J, Bonfill Cosp X)
This new review was prepared by a team led by Carmen Gallardo, and it analysed data from trials comparing oral treatment for pulmonary TB in new patients, given as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) that are combined in one tablet, or taken separately as single-drug formulations. FDCs are recommended by the WHO as they reduce the number of tablets that people take - this might reduce prescribing errors, and improve drug supply efficiency and patients’ adherence. The review includes 13 randomized controlled trials that enrolled 5824 people. Overall there was little or no difference between FDCs and single-drug formulations for most outcomes (treatment failure, relapse, death). There was no relevant difference for sputum smear or culture conversion at the end of treatment, for serious adverse events, and for adverse events that led to discontinuation of therapy. The authors conclude that, although there were no differences in clinical outcomes between the 2 regimens, FDCs may be more advisable than single-drug formulations in settings where there is no directly observed therapy (DOT), in order to ensure treatment compliance and avoid resistance.
- Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene for preventing soil-transmitted helminth infection (Freeman MC, Strunz E, Utzinger J, Addiss DG)
2016, Issue 4
Two updated reviews and one new protocol are available in Issue 4, 2016 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Antihelminthics in helminth-endemic areas: effects on HIV disease progression (Means AR, Burns P Sinclair D, Watson JL)
This review was first published in 2008, and this update includes results from a new search, as well as an assessment of the quality of the evidence using GRADE, and 'Summary of findings' tables. There were also changes in the authors’ team, led by Arianna Rubin Means; the title has been amended, and outcomes now include also anaemia and adverse events. Helminth infections affect the human immune system, and in people with HIV they may compromise a person's ability to control HIV viral replication. Thus, treatment of helminth infections could have important benefits for people living with HIV. The review now includes 8 trials (7 from sub-Saharan Africa and one from Thailand) with 1612 participants. Treating HIV-positive adults with deworming drugs (either without knowledge of their helminth infection status, or with diagnosed helminth infections) may have a small suppressive effect on viral load at six weeks , but repeated dosing over two years appears to have little or no effect on either viral load or CD4+ cells. There was no additional risk for HIV+ people in taking antihelminthic drugs, but adverse events were generally not well reported. Further long-term studies are required to make confident conclusions.
- Corticosteriods for managing tuberculous meningitis (Prasad K, Singh MB, Ryan H)
Kameshwar Prasad, Mamta B Singh and Hannah Ryan are the authors of this review, last updated in 2008, and now extensively revised: the search was updated, and Hannah Ryan re-extracted and analysed the data, revised the 'Risk of bias' assessment, constructed a 'Summary of findings' table with GRADE assessment, and revised the Background, Results, and Discussion sections. Corticosteroids are commonly used in addition to antituberculous drugs for treating people with TB meningitis, a serious form of TB that causes headache, coma and death. Dexamethasone, methylprednisolone, or prednisolone helps reduce inflammation of the surface of the brain and blood vessels, probably decreasing pressure inside the brain, and reducing the risk of death. However, some clinicians are concerned that corticosteroids may improve survival, but result in more severely disabled survivors. Nine trials with 1337 participants are included in the review. Corticosteroids were found to reduce mortality from tuberculous meningitis, at least in the short term, but may have no effect on the number of people who survive tuberculous meningitis with disabling neurological deficit.
- Six months therapy for abdominal tuberculosis (Jullien S, Jain S, Ryan H, Ahuja V)
2016, Issue 3
One new protocol is available in Issue 3, 2016 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Drugs for treating Buruli ulcer (Mycobacterium ulcerans disease) (Yotsu RR, Richardson M, Ishii N)
2016, Issue 2
One updated review and one new protocol are available in Issue 2, 2016 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas (Neuberger A, Okebe J, Yahav D, Paul M)
This review was first published in 2009 and it has been now updated, with changes in the author’s team, still led by Mical Paul, and with a focus on areas with hyperendemic or holoendemic transmission of malaria (but also including trials conducted in other areas which report malaria-related outcomes). In areas where anaemia is common, health providers may give children iron tablets, with or without folic acid, in order to prevent anaemia. There is a concern amongst researchers that this may increase the risk of malaria because increased iron levels in the blood may promote the growth of the Plasmodium parasite. Results from 35 trials with 31,955 children show that iron did not cause an excess of clinical malaria in children, whether they were living in areas where anaemia is common or in those where it’s uncommon. Iron supplements may reduce clinical malaria in areas where there are prevention and management services for malaria, but increase the incidence of malaria in areas where such services are unavailable. Iron supplementation did not cause an excess of severe malaria, and there were no differences for deaths. In conclusion, routine iron supplementation should not be withheld from children living in countries where malaria is prevalent and malaria management services are available.
- Short-course versus prolonged-course antituberculous treatement in tuberculous meningitis (Jullien S, Ryan H, Modi M, Bhatia R)
2016, Issue 1
One new review and one new protocol are available in Issue 1, 2016 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection (Henriquez-Camacho C, Gotuzzo E, Echevarria J, White Jr AC, Terashima A, Samalvides F, Pérez-Molina JA, Plana MN)
This new review, prepared by Cesar Henriques-Camacho and colleagues from Peru, the US and Spain, assesses the effects of ivermectin versus benzimidazoles (albendazole and thiabendazole), which are used for treating chronic strongyloides infection. Strongyloidiasis is caused by the intestinal parasitic worm Strongyloides stercoralis, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Most people remain asymptomatic but chronic infection can cause skin rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, and respiratory problems, and can be fatal in people with immune deficiency. This review includes 7 randomized controlled trials, enrolling 1147 adults with chronic strongyloides infection, conducted between 1994 and 2011 in different locations. Parasitological cure was higher with ivermectin than with albendazole; there was little or no difference in parasitological cure between ivermectin and thiabendazole. There were more adverse events with thiabendazole than with ivermectin. However, there were no serious adverse events or death. Further trials may help investigate the effect of different doses of ivermectin in different group of patients, and identify the optimal treatment for vulnerable populations.
- Pneumococcal vaccine for preventing Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in HIV-infected individuals (Sadlier C, Bennett K, Matthews A, Mockler D, Wilson F, Bergin C)
2015, Issue 10
One updated review is available in Issue 10, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Interventions to improve water quality for preventing diarrhoea (Clasen TF, Alexander KT, Sinclair D, Boisson S, Peletz R, Chang HH, Majorin F, Cairncross S).
Thomas Clasen and his team have updated this review, which now includes 55 studies enrolling over 84,000 participants. Source-based water quality improvement include providing protected groundwater (springs, wells, and bore holes), or harvested rainwater, as an alternative to surface sources (rivers and lakes). Alternatively water may be treated at the point-of-use in people's homes by boiling, chlorination, flocculation, filtration, or solar disinfection. Most included studies were conducted in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) (50 studies), with unimproved water sources (30 studies), and unimproved or unclear sanitation (34 studies). There is not enough evidence to know if source-based improvements in water supplies, such as protected wells and communal tap stands or treatment of communal supplies, consistently reduce diarrhoea in low-income settings; there are no trials evaluating reliable piped-in water supplies to people's homes. Distributing disinfection products for use in the home may reduce diarrhoea cases by one quarter to one third, depending on the product used; water filtration at home probably reduces diarrhoea by around a half. Distributing plastic bottles with instructions to leave filled bottles in direct sunlight for at least six hours before drinking probably reduces diarrhoea by around a third. Evidence also suggests that the more people use the various interventions for improving water quality, the larger the effects, so it is important to assess programmatic approaches to optimize coverage and long-term utilization of interventions to improve water quality.
2015, Issue 9
Two updated reviews are available in Issue 9, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis (Lutge EE, Wiysonge CS, Knight SE, Sinclair D, Volmink J)
The latest update of this review has a slightly modified title and a larger authors’ team, led by Elizabeth Lutge. Interventions included any form of material incentive to return for TB test results, or adhere to, or complete anti-TB treatment. These may have been direct such as cash or vouchers for groceries, or indirect such as the provision of a service for which the patient would have had to pay, such as transport to and from the clinic. The review includes 12 trials: 10 from the USA (one in adolescents, 4 in injection drug or cocaine users, 3 in homeless adults, and 2 in prisoners). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Two trials assessed the effect of incentives on long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and did not demonstrate a clear benefit. Three trials assessed the effects of material incentives and enablers on completion of TB prophylaxis, with mixed results; however, in specific populations, such as recently released prisoners, drug users, and the homeless, trials show that material incentives probably do improve one-off clinic re-attendance for initiation or continuation of anti-TB prophylaxis. When comparing different types of incentives, an immediate cash incentive seemed more effective than delaying the incentive until completion of treatment; cash incentives appeared more effective than non-cash incentives; and higher cash incentives were more effective than lower cash incentives.
- Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea (Ejemot-Nwadiaro R, Ehiri JE, Arikpo D, Meremikwu M M, Critchley JA)
This review, prepared by Regina Ejemot-Nwadiaro and colleagues, has replaced the original publication in 2008, with a new title that introduces the concept of promotion. This includes group or individual training on hygiene education, germ-health awareness, use of posters, leaflets, comic books, songs, and drama. The review includes 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high-income countries (HICs) and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), enrolling 69,309 children and 148 adults. Hand washing promotion at child day-care facilities or schools in HICs prevents around 30% of diarrhoea episodes, and may prevent a similar proportion in schools in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Among communities in LMICs, hand washing promotion prevents around 28% of diarrhoea episodes. In the only hospital-based trial included in this review, hand washing promotion also had important reduction in the mean episodes of diarrhoea; the trial however had only few participants. None of the included trials assessed the effect of handwashing promotion on diarrhoeal-related deaths, all-cause under-five mortality, or the cost-effectiveness of hand washing promotions. Also, not much is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term.
2015, Issue 8
One new review and one new protocol are available in Issue 8, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Vector and Reservoir control for preventing leishmaniasis (González U, Pinart M, Sinclair D, Firooz A, Enk C, Vélez ID, Esterhuizen TM, Tristan M, Alvar J)
Leishmaniasis is a tropical disease that potentially affects 350 million, often impoverished, people, across 98 countries. The disease is caused by Leishmania parasites, and has two distinct clinical syndromes: cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which affects the skin and mucous membranes, and visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which affects internal organs. Leishmaniasis could be prevented by reducing human contact with infected phlebotomine sandflies (the vector), or by reducing the number of infected animals (the reservoir). In this new Cochrane Review, Urbà González and his colleagues have analysed 14 trials of vector and reservoir control interventions, which were undertaken in different settings; most included trials were of low methodological quality. Using insecticides appeared to reduce CL incidence, but there is not enough evidence to know whether it is better to use insecticides to spray the internal walls of houses, or use insecticide-treated bednets, bedsheets, or curtains. Personal protection using insecticide-treated clothing was also evaluated in two trials in soldiers, but the trials were too small to know whether or not this was effective. For VL, insecticide-treated nets may not be effective at preventing disease, but this was only tested in a single trial from India and Nepal.
- Antimalarial drug combinations for treating uncomplicated malaria in pregnancy (Tagbor H, Mahama RP, Antwi G)
2015, Issue 7
One updated review is available in Issue 7, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin and school performance (Taylor-Robinson DC, Maayan N, Soares-Weiser K, Donegan S, Garner P)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common, with the assumption that this treatment will improve nutritional status, haemoglobin and cognition and consequently children’s health, intellect and school attendance. There is also a considerable investment in delivering this intervention and it is imperative to critically evaluate the evidence on its benefits. David Taylor-Robinson and colleagues have added 4 new studies to their 2012 edition of the review, for a total of 45 trials. One trial evaluating mortality included over one million children, and the remaining 44 trials included a total of 67,672 participants. In trials that treat only children known to be infected, deworming drugs may increase weight gain but we do not know if there is an effect on cognitive functioning or physical well-being. Deworming had little or no effect on average weight gain, haemoglobin, or cognition in trials treating all children living in an endemic area. There is good evidence that regular treatment probably has no effect on average height, formal tests of cognition, or exam performance, and do not know if there is an effect on school attendance. The authors conclude that large scale programmes to deworm all school children in low income countries do not lead to the acclaimed educational and economic benefits, and call for policy makers to look again at the evidence in a systematic way, in order to re-think current WHO recommendations.
2015, Issue 5
One updated review is available in Issue 5, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Directly observed therapy for treating tuberculosis (Karumbi J, Garner P)
Jamlick Karumbi has replaced Jimmy Volmink as an author, together with Paul Garner, in the update of this review, last published in 2007. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a specific strategy, endorsed by the World Health Organization, to improve adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment, by requiring health workers, community volunteers or family members to observe and record patients taking each dose. This review includes 11 trials with 5662 participants comparing DOT with routine self-administration of treatment or prophylaxis in a variety of settings (clinic, the patient's home or the home of a community volunteer). Overall, cure and treatment completion in both self-treatment and DOT groups was low, and DOT did not substantially improve this. There were no differences when DOT was conducted at home or at the clinic, or by a community health worker or family member; also, DOT had little or no effect on treatment completion in injection drug users. The authors conclude that DOT does not provide a solution to poor adherence in TB treatment, and given the large resource and cost involved, policy makers might want to reconsider TB control strategies that depend on direct observation.
2015, Issue 4
Two new protocols and one new review are available in Issue 4, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Tafenoquine for preventing relapse in people with Plasmodium vivax malaria (Rajapakse S, Rodrigo C, Fernando SD)
Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline and a synthetic analogue of primaquine, which is the only licensed drug capable of eliminating the Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites. Tafenoquine has been tested as an alternative to primaquine as it has potential to be useful in regimens for prophylaxis and radical cure of P. vivax malaria. Tafenoquine has shorter duration of therapy and this makes it an attractive option to improve adherence. A Sri Lankan author team led by Senaka Rajapakse, identified three RCTs conducted in Thailand, India, Peru and Brazil on adults with confirmed P. vivax malaria that randomized 453 participants, for inclusion in the review. All participants received chloroquine (to clear the parasites in the blood) and some groups received either tafenoquine, primaquine or no further treatment. All trials tested people for G6PD enzyme, and excluded patients who were deficient, as both primaquine and tafenoquine can cause haemolysis in these individuals. Patients receiving tafenoquine at doses greater than 300 mg had fewer relapses than adults who had no further treatment, and tafenoquine 600 mg may be better in relapse prevention than standard primaquine doses. The drug is still untested in pregnancy, children and in G6PD-deficient people.
- Mosquito repellents for malaria prevention (Maia MF, Kliner M, Richardson M, Lengeler C, Moore SJ)
- Interventions to control flies for preventing diarrhoea in children under five years of age (Das JK, Salam RA, Hoda M, Lassi ZS, Bhutta ZA)
2015, Issue 3
One new review is available in Issue 3, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas (Ochodo EA, Gopalakrishna G, Spek B, Reitsma JB, van Lieshout L, Polman K, Lamberton P, Bossuyt PMM, Leeflang MMG)
This new review prepared by Eleanor Ochodo and her team evaluates point-of-care (POC) tests for diagnosing schistosomiasis. POC tests include assays based on circulating antigen detection and urine reagent strip tests, which are quick and easier to use in the field, and, if they show sufficient diagnostic accuracy, they could replace conventional microscopy. This review evaluated urine reagent strip tests to detect active Schistosoma haematobium infection, with microscopy as the reference standard; and circulating antigen tests for detecting active Schistosoma infection in geographical regions endemic for Schistosoma mansoni or S. haematobium or both, with microscopy as the reference standard. 90 studies involving almost 200,000 people were included (88 from field settings in Africa). For detecting urinary schistosomiasis, urine strips for detecting blood were better than those detecting protein or white cells, and the parasite antigen test performance was worse than urine strips for detecting blood. For intestinal schistosomiasis, the circulating parasite antigen urine test detected many infections identified by microscopy, but wrongly labelled many uninfected people as positive. Studies were in general poorly reported.
2015, Issue 2
One new review, one updated review and two new protocols are available in Issue 2, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Artemisinin-naphthoquine for treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (Isba R, Zani B, Gathu M, Sinclair D)
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for treating people with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Five combinations are currently recommended, all administered over three days. Artemisinin-naphthoquine is a new combination developed in China, which is being marketed as a one-day treatment. This review prepared by Rachel Isba and colleagues compares the efficacy and safety of artemisinin-naphtoquine against established WHO-recommended ACTs regimes (3 days) , in adults and children suffering from P.falciparum malaria. Only 4 trials, all of low quality, enrolling 740 adults and children, met the inclusion criteria: 3 small trials compared artemisinin-naphthoquine to artemether-lumefantrine and one small trial compared it to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Artemisinin-naphthoquine showed very low treatment failure in all trials; this is a promising result but it needs to be confirmed by larger multi-setting trials.
- Primaquine or other 8-aminoquinoline for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission (Graves PM, Gelband H, Garner P)
This review by Patricia Graves, Helen Gelband and Paul Garner has been updated with a new search but no added trials and no change to conclusions. Primaquine (PQ)is an antimalarial drug which does not cure malaria illness, but is known to kill the gametocyte stage of the malaria parasite which infects mosquitoes when they bite humans. The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010 recommended adding a single dose of PQ to malaria treatment in order to reduce malaria transmission and to contribute to malaria elimination; in 2013 the recommended dose of PQ was reduced to 0.25 mg/kg due to concerns about safety, especially in people with G6PD deficiency. The review includes 17 RCT and one quasi-RCT and aims to assess whether PQ, or an alternative 8AQ, alongside treatment for P. falciparum malaria reduces malaria transmission, and to estimate the frequency of severe or haematological adverse events. The authors conclude that in individual patients, PQ added to malaria treatments reduces gametocyte prevalence when given in doses greater than 0.4 mg/kg. Two small studies reported a strong reduction in infectiousness, but no trials assessed whether this policy has an impact on community malaria transmission. Overall the safety of PQ given as a single dose was poorly evaluated across all studies.
- Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (Okafo O, Esu E, Oringanje C, Meremikwu MM)
- Smectite for acute infectious diarrhoea in children (Pérez-Gaxiola G, Cuello-García CA, Pérez-Pico V)
2015, Issue 1
One new review and one new protocol are available in Issue 1, 2015 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
- Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment for children with anaemia (Athuman M, Kabanywanyi AM, Rohwer AC)
Anaemia is a global problem, particularly in in children under five years in Africa and South-East Asia. Malaria is a common cause of anemia in these areas, and administering intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment (IPT) to children might reduce anaemia, as well as protect from new malaria infections, allow faster recovery from the illness, and help make the children less likely to succumb to other infections. Mwaka Athuman and her co-authors in this new review have included six randomised controlled trials which included 3847 participants; three trials were conducted in areas of low malaria endemicity and three in areas of high endemicity. In some trials, iron supplements were also given to children. In all trials there was a group that received IPT and a control group that were given a placebo. Although there were small benefits in haemoglobin levels when treating anaemic children with IPT, there was no effect on death or hospital admissions, irrespective of whether they received iron supplements. However, three of the six included trials were conducted in low endemicity areas where malaria transmission is low and thus any protective effect is likely to be modest.
- Mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women (R González, Ragna S Boerma, ,David Sinclair, John J Aponte, Feiko O ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez)